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Lesson Plan

We The People: A History by Discovery Education


Course, Subject

United States History and Government, Social Studies (NYS K-12 Framework Common Core)

Grade Levels

4th Grade, 7th Grade


Duration

1-2 class periods

Objectives

Students will

  • Identify the reasons the colonies fought the American Revolution.
  • Describe the meaning of "taxation without representation."
  • Explain why the colonies were so angered by British-imposed taxes

Materials

Students will

  • Identify the reasons the colonies fought the American Revolution.
  • Describe the meaning of "taxation without representation."
  • Explain why the colonies were so angered by British-imposed taxes

Procedure

Discuss the reasons that American colonies fought the Revolutionary War.  Why did they want independence from Britain? Do you think that Britain was right to tax the colonies on paper, tea, and other goods?

Introduce the phrase "taxation without representation" and explain that this slogan was a rallying cry used by colonists seeking independence from Britain. Ask students: What does the slogan mean? Talk about the pros and cons of life in colonial America. For example, the colonists enjoyed a great deal of freedom because they were governed from afar, but the taxes imposed by the British angered them.  They felt exploited because no on in the British government represented their interests.

Tell the class that they are going to play a game about taxation. Choose two students to act as British tax collectors, one as a Member of Parliament, and one as King of England. All other students will be colonists. As a class, brainstorm some taxes that could exist in a classroom situation, possibly a tax on books, pens, or pencils or a tax on tardiness.

The tax collectors, Parliamentarian, and king will decide on 10-12 taxes to enact. Have these students write their list on a piece of chart paper that will be displayed in the classroom. Instruct them to include a tax on noise so students remain quiet during the lesson.

When the list is complete, give each student a cup of candy. Explain that the British tax collectors will collect taxes from all the colonists. Read through the list of taxes and tell students that the tax collectors will collect one piece of candy for each item on the list. If students have a pencil, they must pay the pencil tax with one piece of candy. If they do not have a pencil, they do not pay the tax. Any student found talking too loudly must pay a tax of one piece of candy.

Ask the king and Parliament member to stand in the front of the room, observing while one collector takes taxes from half of the students and the other takes taxes from the other half. If a student refuses to pay a tax, have the collector escort that person to a  "jail" in a corner of the room and take the entire cup of candy. Instruct the tax collectors to keep 10 percent of the candy they collect, give 40 percent to the Parliament member, and 50 percent to the king.

After the taxes have been collected and divided, have students count how much candy they have. Tell them that they will keep only this amount. How many pieces of candy do most of the colonists have? How many pieces of candy do the tax collectors have? How about the Parliamentarian and the king?

Ask students to talk about how the activity made them feel. Who feels upset and why? Are they angry that they lost pieces of candy? Is it fair that the king has so much? Were the taxes fair? What happened to a colonist who did not pay a tax? Was there a way to make the taxes fair? If so, how? In what ways did this activity resemble the taxation system in colonial America?

Tell students to write a one-page essay about the activity, addressing the following.

  • What was your role in this activity? How did it make you feel?
  • In what ways were the taxes fair or unfair? Was there a way to make the taxes fair for all? If so, how?
  • How was this activity similar to what happened in colonial America before the Revolutionary War?
  • What were the colonists fighting for in their battle to become independent?
  • Do you think the colonists were justified in their anger toward the British? Why or why not? Explain fully the phrase "taxation without representation."

Evaluation

Use the following three-point rubric to evaluate students' work during this lesson.

  • Three points:  Students wrote thoughtful essays that clearly identified the reasons for the American Revolution, clearly and correctly described the phrase "taxation without representation," and clearly explained why the colonists were so angered by British taxes.
  • Two points:  Students wrote somewhat thoughtful essays that adequately identified the reasons for the American Revolution, adequately and somewhat correctly described the meaning of "taxation without representation," and adequately explained why the colonists were so angered by British taxes.
  • One point:  Students wrote incomplete essays that did not identify the reasons for the American Revolution, did not describe the meaning of "taxation without representation," and did not explain why the colonists were so angered by British taxes.

Resource

We The People: A History

Vocabulary

colony
Definition: A region politically controlled by a distant country; a dependency
Context: Seeing Spain grow rich from American colonies, France, the Netherlands, and England sought to establish their own colonies.

democracy
Definition: Government by the people; exercised directly or through elected representatives
Context: The government of Athens in ancient Greece was a democracy.

protest
Definition: An individual or collective gesture or display of disapproval
Context: Taxes imposed by Britain sparked angry protests.

representative
Definition: One that serves as a delegate or agent for another; a member of a governmental body, usually legislative, chosen by popular vote
Context: A representative from each of the 13 colonies gathered in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, for the Second Continental Congress.

revenue
Definition: The income of a government from all sources appropriated for the payment of the public expenses
Context: The Stamp Act required every piece of paper, from pamphlets to playing cards, to display a revenue stamp.

tax
Definition: A contribution for the support of a government required of persons, groups, or businesses within the domain of that government
Context: A document known as the Magna Carta put restrictions on an English king's power and rights to tax the English people.

Content Provider

Discovery Education

Discovery Education offers a breadth and depth of digital media content that is immersive, engaging and brings the world into the classroom to give every student a chance to experience fascinating people, places, and events. All content is aligned to state standards, can be aligned to custom curriculum, and supports classroom instruction regardless of the technology platform.

Whether looking for a digital media library service, an implementation to help you transition your classroom to a 21st century environment or to move completely to replace textbooks with digital resources, Discovery Education offers a continuum of solutions to meet your district's specific needs. In addition, we offer real-time assessment services and a variety of professional development to ensure effective implementation in the classroom. You know your needs. We know our services. Together we can create an effective solution.

And, add the vast number of additional classroom instruction opportunities available such as virtual experiences, compelling Discovery talent, free lesson plans and materials, and a variety of contests and challenges and with Discovery Education teachers are truly able to give students opportunities to soar beyond the traditional textbook for endless possibilities.


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