Last updated: 8/13/2010
Niagara Falls City School District
630 66th Street, Niagara Falls, NY 14304

Science - Forensic Science - 20 Weeks

Pollen and Spore Examination
MST4.C.LE2.2a For thousands of years new varieties of cultivated plants and domestic animals have resulted from selective breeding for particular traits.
Pollen and Spore Examination
• Distinguish between pollen and spores
• Define a pollen “fingerprint”
• Classify the different organisms that produce pollen and spores
• Summarize the different methods of pollination in plants and the relevance in solving crimes
• Identify the different ways that spores are dispersed
• State characteristics of pollen and spores that are important for identification in forensic studies
• Summarize how pollen and spore evidence is collected at a crime scene
• Describe how pollen and spore samples are analyzed and evaluated
Bertino Chapter 5 Activity 5-1 Pollen Examination: Matching a Suspect to a Crime Scene


Structure, function, and reproduction of angiosperms, gymnosperms and fungi

Preparing permanent mount slides
Focusing a microscope

Living Environment Appendix A - Dissects plant and/or animal specimens to expose and identify internal structures Activity 5-2 Pollen Expert Witness Presentation MATH

Calculate the diameter of various pollen grains
MST4.C.LE4.1a Reproduction and development are necessary for the continuation of any species. Activity 5-3 Palynology Case Studies Presentation ELA

Expert witness testimony to jury on pollen analysis comparing pollen at crime scene with pollen found on suspect
MST4.C.LE4.1c The processes of meiosis and fertilization are key to sexual reproduction in a wide variety of organisms. The process of meiosis results in the production of eggs and sperm which each contain half of the genetic information. During fertilization, gametes unite to form a zygote, which contains the complete genetic information for the offspring. Digging Deeper with Forensic Science e-Collection - Gale Forensic Sciences eCollection

Digital photography with camera and/or digital microscope
Computer: copying images, preparation of power point presentation
MST4.C.ES  2.1s Weathering is the physical and chemical breakdown of rocks at or near Earth's surface. Soils are the result of weathering and biological activity over long periods of time.
(1) MST1.C.LE.LE.3.1 Students use various means of representing and organizing observations (e.g., diagrams, tables, charts, graphs, equations, matrices) and insightfully interpret the organized data.
3.1a Organize observations in a data table, analyze the data for trends or patterns, and interpret the trends or patterns, using scientific concepts
• Discuss the history of fingerprinting.
• Describe the characteristics of fingerprints.
• Identify the basic types of fingerprints.
•Describe how criminals attempt to alter their fingerprints.
• Determine the reliability of fingerprints as a means of identification.
• Explain how fingerprint evidence is collected.
• Describe the latest identification technologies.
• Determine if a fingerprint matches a fingerprint on record.
• Use the process of lifting a latent print.
Bertino Chapter 6 Activity 6-1 Study Your Fingerprints SCIENCE

Structure, function and growth of skin
Role of sweat glands in fingerprinting
MST4.C.LE2.1f In all organisms, the coded instructions for specifying the characteristics of the organism are carried in DNA, a large molecule formed from subunits arranged in a sequence with bases of four kinds (represented by A, G, C, and T). The chemical and structural properties of DNA are the basis for how the genetic information that underlies heredity is both encoded in genes (as a string of molecular bases) and replicated by means of a template. Activity 6-2 Giant Balloon Fingerprint MATH

Calculate ridge count
MST4.C.LE4.1d The zygote may divide by mitosis and differentiate to form the specialized cells, tissues, and organs of multicellular organisms. Activity 6-3  Studying Latent Fingerprints ELA

Research the history of fingerprinting. Prepare a time line indicating when it began and how it has progressed.
MST4.C.CH.3.1x Elements can also be differentiated by chemical properties. Chemical properties describe how an element behaves during a chemical reaction. Activity 6-4 How to Print a Ten Card TECHNOLOGY

Match transparency of fingerprints to latent prints from a surface
MST4.C.CH.3.2b Types of chemical reactions include synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, and double replacement. Activity 6-5 Is It a Match?
MST4.C.CH.3.4f The rate of a chemical reaction depends on several factors: temperature, concentration, nature of the reactants, surface area, and the presence of a catalyst. Activity 6-6 Fingerprint Matching
Case Studies p. 143
Digging Deeper with Forensic Science e-Collection p.136
Use website
) and textbook to Create visual timeline of the history of fingerprinting, include present day and predict what the future will hold
Online Activity –

Click Interactivity – Studying Latent fingerprints
Online Article:
DNA Fingerprinting
(1) MST4.C.LE.LE.2.2 Students explain how the technology of genetic engineering allows humans to alter the genetic makeup of organisms.
2.2c Different enzymes can be used to cut, copy, and move segments of DNA. Characteristics produced by the segments of DNA may be expressed when these segments are inserted into new organisms, such as bacteria.
DNA Fingerprinting
• Explain how crime-scene evidence is collected for DNA analysis.
• Describe how crime-scene evidence is processed to obtain DNA.
• Describe how radioactive probes are used in DNA fingerprinting.
• Explain how DNA evidence is compared for matching.
• Explain how DNA fingerprinting is used to determine if specimens come from related or unrelated individuals.
• Explain how to use DNA fingerprinting to identify DNA from a parent, child, or relative of another person.
Bertino Chapter 7 Activity 7-1 DNA Fingerprinting Simulation Using Dyes SCIENCE

Structure, function of DNA
Gel electrophoresis
Role of restriction enzymes
Principles of electrophoresis
MST4.C.LE4.1b Some organisms reproduce asexually with all the genetic information coming from one parent. Other organisms reproduce sexually with half the genetic information typically contributed by each parent. Cloning is the production of identical genetic copies. Activity 7-2 Where’s the CAT?  Simulation MATH

Graphing skills: comparison of distance traveled to band size
Activity 7-3 Ward’s DNA Fingerprinting Simulation ELA

Research Project Innocence. When did it begin, by whom, its purpose and its status as of today.
Activity 7-4 Who Are the Parents? TECHNOLOGY

Measurement with pipettes, Gel electrophoresis apparatus
Activity 7-5 Which Man Is the Father?
Activity 7-6 The Break In
Activity 7-7 Internet Search
Case Studies p. 170
Digging Deeper with Forensic Science e-Collection p. 163 and 168
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