Last updated: 8/2/2006
Niagara Falls City School District
630 66th Street, Niagara Falls, NY 14304


Science - Physics - 40 Weeks

(14) MST4.C.P.4.3 Students explain variations in wavelength and frequency in terms of the source of the vibrations that produce them, e.g. molecules, electrons, and nuclear particles.
4.3a An oscillating system produces waves. The nature of the system determines the type of wave produced. p447 LAB Chapter 12 Skills: Speed of Sound

WS: Waves and Sound
Technology-
Bicycle Design and Shock Absorption


Earth Science-
Earthquake Waves
Lab Portfolios


Alternative Assessment p 585, 631
(14) MST4.C.P.4.3 Students explain variations in wavelength and frequency in terms of the source of the vibrations that produce them, e.g. molecules, electrons, and nuclear particles.
4.3b Waves carry energy and information without transferring mass. This energy may be carried by pulses or periodic waves. p338 DEMO: Slinky
Period and Frequency

Demonstration p376

DEMO: Wave Tank
See above See above
(14) MST4.C.P.4.3 Students explain variations in wavelength and frequency in terms of the source of the vibrations that produce them, e.g. molecules, electrons, and nuclear particles.
4.3c The model of a wave incorporates the characteristics of amplitude, wavelength,* frequency*, period*, wave speed*, and phase. p383-387 See above See above See above
(14) MST4.C.P.4.3 Students explain variations in wavelength and frequency in terms of the source of the vibrations that produce them, e.g. molecules, electrons, and nuclear particles.
4.3d Mechanical waves require a material medium through which to travel. See above See above See above See above
(14) MST4.C.P.4.3 Students explain variations in wavelength and frequency in terms of the source of the vibrations that produce them, e.g. molecules, electrons, and nuclear particles.
4.3e Waves are categorized by the direction in which particles in a medium vibrate about an equilibrium position relative to the direction of propagation of the wave, such as transverse and longitudinal waves. p408-409, 418-419, 428 DEMO: Tuning Forks See above See above
(14) MST4.C.P.4.3 Students explain variations in wavelength and frequency in terms of the source of the vibrations that produce them, e.g. molecules, electrons, and nuclear particles.
4.3f Resonance occurs when energy is transferred to a system at its natural frequency. p446-450, 733 Infrared Light and Radio Waves Demonstrations p446 See above See above
(14) MST4.C.P.4.3 Students explain variations in wavelength and frequency in terms of the source of the vibrations that produce them, e.g. molecules, electrons, and nuclear particles.
4.3g Electromagnetic radiation exhibits wave characteristics. Electromagnetic waves can propagate through a vacuum. See above LAB: Reflection

LAB: Refraction
WS: Reflection and Refraction

LAB: Lenses

LAB Chapter 14:
See above See above
(14) MST4.C.P.4.3 Students explain variations in wavelength and frequency in terms of the source of the vibrations that produce them, e.g. molecules, electrons, and nuclear particles.
4.3h When a wave strikes a boundary between two media, reflection*, transmission, and absorption occur. A transmitted wave may be refracted. p392, 451-452, 506-508, 469, 473-474, 488-492 See above See above See above
(14) MST4.C.P.4.3 Students explain variations in wavelength and frequency in terms of the source of the vibrations that produce them, e.g. molecules, electrons, and nuclear particles.
4.3i When a wave moves from one medium into another, the wave may refract due to a change in speed. The angle of refraction (measured with respect to the normal) depends on the angle of incidence and the properties of the media (indices of refraction).* p494-504 Converging Lenses

LAB: Speed of Light in Water
See above See above
(14) MST4.C.P.4.3 Students explain variations in wavelength and frequency in terms of the source of the vibrations that produce them, e.g. molecules, electrons, and nuclear particles.
4.3j The absolute index of refraction is inversely proportional to the speed of a wave.* p285-286 See above See above See above
(14) MST4.C.P.4.3 Students explain variations in wavelength and frequency in terms of the source of the vibrations that produce them, e.g. molecules, electrons, and nuclear particles.
4.3k All frequencies of electromagnetic radiation travel at the same speed in a vacuum.* See above See above See above See above
(14) MST4.C.P.4.3 Students explain variations in wavelength and frequency in terms of the source of the vibrations that produce them, e.g. molecules, electrons, and nuclear particles.
4.3l Diffraction occurs when waves pass by obstacles or through openings. The wavelength of the incident wave and the size of the obstacle or opening affect how the wave spreads out. p533-535 LAB Chapter 15 Skills: Diffraction

DEMO: Diffraction Grating
Astronomy-
Refracting Telescope at Yerkes
Lab Portfolios

Alternative Assessment Pg. 399
(14) MST4.C.P.4.3 Students explain variations in wavelength and frequency in terms of the source of the vibrations that produce them, e.g. molecules, electrons, and nuclear particles.
4.3m When waves of a similar nature meet, the resulting interference may be explained using the principle of superposition. Standing waves are a special case of interference. p526-531 Waves Passing Each Other Demonstration p390 See above See above
(14) MST4.C.P.4.3 Students explain variations in wavelength and frequency in terms of the source of the vibrations that produce them, e.g. molecules, electrons, and nuclear particles.
4.3n When a wave source and an observer are in relative motion, the observed frequency of the waves traveling between them is shifted (Doppler effect). p412-413, 912 DEMO: Doppler Effect

Doppler Effect

Doppler Effect Demonstration p412
See above See above
(10) MST4.C.P.5.3 Students compare energy relationships within an atom’s nucleus to those outside the nucleus.
5.3a States of matter and energy are restricted to discrete values (quantized). p754, 759 WS: DeBroglie Waves

WS: Energy Level Diagrams
Astronomy-
Our Changing Universe

Earth Science-
Radioactivity Within the Earth
Lab Portfolios

Alternative Assessment p781, 823
(10) MST4.C.P.5.3 Students compare energy relationships within an atom’s nucleus to those outside the nucleus.
5.3b Charge is quantized on two levels. On the atomic level, charge is restricted to multiples of the elementary charge (charge on the electron or proton). On the subnuclear level, charge appears as fractional values of the elementary charge (quarks). p560 See above See above See above
(10) MST4.C.P.5.3 Students compare energy relationships within an atom’s nucleus to those outside the nucleus.
5.3c On the atomic level, energy is emitted or absorbed in discrete packets called photons.* p772-777, 922-923 WS: Photoelectric Effect

LAB Chapter 21 Skills: Photoelectric Effect

DEMO: Geiger Counter
See above See above
(10) MST4.C.P.5.3 Students compare energy relationships within an atom’s nucleus to those outside the nucleus.
5.3d The energy of a photon is proportional to its frequency.* p756-761 See above See above See above
(10) MST4.C.P.5.3 Students compare energy relationships within an atom’s nucleus to those outside the nucleus.
5.3e On the atomic level, energy and matter exhibit the characteristics of both waves and particles. p766-770, 926 See above See above See above
(10) MST4.C.P.5.3 Students compare energy relationships within an atom’s nucleus to those outside the nucleus.
5.3f Among other things, mass-energy and charge are conserved at all levels (from subnuclear to cosmic). p815-817 See above See above See above
(10) MST4.C.P.5.3 Students compare energy relationships within an atom’s nucleus to those outside the nucleus.
5.3g The Standard Model of Particle Physics has evolved from previous attempts to explain the nature of the atom and states that: 
  • atomic particles are composed of subnuclear particles 
  • the nucleus is a conglomeration of quarks which manifest themselves as protons and neutrons 
  • each elementary particle has a corresponding antiparticle
See above Jumping Spices Demonstration p561

WS: The Atom and Quantum
See above See above
(10) MST4.C.P.5.3 Students compare energy relationships within an atom’s nucleus to those outside the nucleus.
5.3h Behaviors and characteristics of matter, from the microscopic to the cosmic levels, are manifestations of its atomic structure. The macroscopic characteristics of matter, such as electrical and optical properties, are the result of microscopic interactions. p763-770, 797 LAB Chapter 22 Skills: Half-life

WS: Radioactivity

LAB: Atomic Spectrum
See above See above
(10) MST4.C.P.5.3 Students compare energy relationships within an atom’s nucleus to those outside the nucleus.
5.3i The total of the fundamental interactions is responsible for the appearance and behavior of the objects in the universe. p762 Radioactive Decay See above See above
(10) MST4.C.P.5.3 Students compare energy relationships within an atom’s nucleus to those outside the nucleus.
5.3j The fundamental source of all energy in the universe is the conversion of mass into energy.* See above See above See above See above
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