Last updated: 8/20/2010
Niagara Falls City School District
630 66th Street, Niagara Falls, NY 14304

Science - Living Environment - 30 Weeks

(1) MST4.C.LE.LE.2.1 Students explain how the structure and replication of genetic material result in offspring that resemble their parents.
2.1a Genes are inherited, but their expression can be modified by interactions with the environment.
2.1b Every organism requires a set of coded instructions for specifying its traits. For offspring to resemble their parents, there must be a reliable way to transfer information from one generation to the next. Heredity is the passage of these instructions from one generation to another.
2.1c Hereditary information is contained in genes, located in the chromosomes of each cell. An inherited trait of an individual can be determined by one or by many genes, and a single gene can influence more than one trait. A human cell contains many thousands of different genes in its nucleus.
2.1d In asexually reproducing organisms, all the genes come from a single parent. Asexually produced offspring are normally genetically identical to the parent.
2.1e In sexually reproducing organisms, the new individual receives half of the genetic information from its mother (via the egg) and half from its father (via the sperm). Sexually produced offspring often resemble, but are not identical to, either of their parents.
2.1f In all organisms, the coded instructions for specifying the characteristics of the organism are carried in DNA, a large molecule formed from subunits arranged in a sequence with bases of four kinds (represented by A, G, C, and T). The chemical and structural properties of DNA are the basis for how the genetic information that under- lies heredity is both encoded in genes (as a string of molecular "bases") and replicated by means of a template.
2.1g Cells store and use coded information. The genetic information stored in DNA is used to direct the synthesis of the thousands of proteins that each cell requires.
2.1h Genes are segments of DNA molecules. Any alteration of the DNA sequence is a mutation. Usually, an altered gene will be passed on to every cell that develops from it.
2.1i The work of the cell is carried out by the many different types of molecules it assembles, mostly proteins. Protein molecules are long, usually folded chains made from 20 different kinds of amino acids in a specific sequence. This sequence influences the shape of the protein. The shape of the protein, in turn, determines its function.
2.1j Offspring resemble their parents because they inherit similar genes that code for the production of proteins that form similar structures and perform similar functions.
2.1k The many body cells in an individual can be very different from one another, even though they are all descended from a single cell and thus have essentially identical genetic instructions. This is because different parts of these instructions are used in different types of cells, and are influenced by the cell's environment and past history.
Lorenzo’s Oil Video

Protein Synthesis Lab

Interactive Explorations in Biology – Cell Biology and Genetics 7. Meiosis: Down Syndrome

Genetic Science Learning Center


Gel Electrophoresis.doc- Utilizing Electrophoresis equipment
English – Cloning Dolly Article

English - Genetic Disease Brochure

English – Jurassic Park by Michael Chriton

Topic B:
Genes and Chromosomes

Topic C:

Topic E:
Mutation and Disorders

Reproduction & Development

Topic B:
Mitotic Cell Reproduction

Topic C:
Meiotic Cell Reproduction

Topic D: Vertebrate Fertilization and Development

Topic H:
Constructed Response Questions
(1) MST4.C.LE.LE.2.2 Students explain how the technology of genetic engineering allows humans to alter the genetic makeup of organisms.
2.2a For thousands of years, new varieties of cultivated plants and domestic animals have resulted from selective breeding for particular traits.
2.2b In recent years new varieties of farm plants and animals have been engineered by manipulating their genetic instructions to produce new characteristics.
2.2c Different enzymes can be used to cut, copy, and move segments of DNA. Characteristics produced by the segments of DNA may be expressed when these segments are inserted into new organisms, such as bacteria.
2.2d Inserting, deleting, or substituting DNA segments can alter genes. An altered gene may be passed on to every cell that develops from it.
2.2e Knowledge of genetics is making new fields of health care possible; for example, finding genes which may have mutations that can cause disease will aid in the development of preventive measures to fight disease. Substances, such as hormones and enzymes, from genetically engineered organisms may reduce the cost and side effects of replacing missing body chemicals.
History of Insulin

Genetic Science Learning Center

English – Research project on genetically engineered foods. Genetics

Topic F:
Genetic Engineering

Topic G:
Gene Expression

Topic H:
Constructed Response Questions
(1) MST4.C.LE.LE.4.1 Students explain how organisms, including humans, reproduce their own kind.
4.1a Reproduction and development are necessary for the continuation of any species.
4.1b Some organisms reproduce asexually with all the genetic information coming from one parent. Other organisms reproduce sexually with half the genetic information typically contributed by each parent. Cloning is the production of identical genetic copies.
4.1c The processes of meiosis and fertilization are key to sexual reproduction in a wide variety of organisms. The process of meiosis results in the production of eggs and sperm which each contain half of the genetic information. During fertilization, gametes unite to form a zygote, which contains the complete genetic information for the offspring.
4.1d The zygote may divide by mitosis and differentiate to form the specialized cells, tissues, and organs of multicellular organisms.
4.1e Human reproduction and development are influenced by factors such as gene expression, hormones, and the environment. The reproductive cycle in both males and females is regulated by hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone.
4.1f The structures and functions of the human female reproductive system, as in almost all other mammals, are designed to produce gametes in ovaries, allow for internal fertilization, support the internal development of the embryo and fetus in the uterus, and provide essential materials through the placenta, and nutrition through milk for the newborn.
4.1g The structures and functions of the human male reproductive system, as in other mammals, are designed to produce gametes in testes and make possible the delivery of these gametes for fertilization.
4.1h In humans, the embryonic development of essential organs occurs in early stages of pregnancy. The embryo may encounter risks from faults in its genes and from its mother's exposure to environmental factors such as inadequate diet, use of alcohol/drugs/tobacco, other toxins, or infections throughout her pregnancy.
Miracle of Life Video

Karyotype Lab

Cloning Case Studies
Global Studies- Polygamy and Monogamy Reproduction & Development

Topic B:
Mitotic Cell Reproduction

Topic C:
Meiotic Cell Reproduction

Topic D:
Vertebrate Fertilization and Development

Topic E:
Human Reproduction

Topic F:
Constructed Response Questions
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