Last updated: 8/31/2010
Niagara Falls City School District
630 66th Street, Niagara Falls, NY 14304

## Science - Chemistry - 10 Weeks

Unit I- Physical Behavior of Matter
 (1) MST1.C.C.MA1.1 Students use algebraic and geometric representations to describe and compare data.

1.1c Recognize and convert various scales of measurement

• temperature
• Celsius (°C)
• Kelvin (K)
• length
• kilometers (km)
• meters (m)
• centimeters (cm)
• millimeters (mm)
• mass
• grams (g)
• kilograms (kg)
• pressure
• kilopascal (kPa)
• atmosphere (atm)
Pearson - Chemistry

Chapters 1-6

Metric Conversion Assignment

Measurement Lab

Significant Figures

Scientific Notation

Determining Density Lab.doc
Math – Metric Conversions
 (23) MST4.C.C.PS3.1 Students explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.
3.1q Matter is classified as a pure substance or as a mixture of substances. Lab: Classifying Matter Math – Metric Conversions
 (23) MST4.C.C.PS3.1 Students explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.
3.1r A pure substance (element or compound) has a constant composition and constant properties throughout a given sample, and from sample to sample. See above Math – Metric Conversions
 (23) MST4.C.C.PS3.1 Students explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.
3.1s Mixtures are composed of two or more different substances that can be separated by physical means. When different substances are mixed together, a homogeneous or heterogeneous mixture is formed. Lab: Separating Mixtures

Chromatography Lab.doc
 (23) MST4.C.C.PS3.1 Students explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.
3.1t The proportions of components in a mixture can be varied. Each component in a mixture retains its original properties. See above
 (23) MST4.C.C.PS3.1 Students explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.
3.1u Elements are substances that are composed of atoms that have the same atomic number. Elements cannot be broken down by chemical change. See above
 (23) MST4.C.C.PS3.1 Students explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.
3.1jj The structure and arrangement of particles and their interactions determine the physical state of a substance at a given temperature and pressure. See above
 (23) MST4.C.C.PS3.1 Students explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.
3.1kk The three phases of matter (solids, liquids, and gases) have different properties. See above
 (1) MST4.C.C.PS3.2 Students use atomic and molecular models to explain common chemical reactions.
3.2a A physical change results in the rearrangement of existing particles in a substance. A chemical change results in the formation of different substances with changed properties. See above
 (4) MST4.C.C.PS4.1 Students observe and describe transmission of various forms of energy.
4.1a Energy can exist in different forms, such as chemical, electrical, electromagnetic, thermal, mechanical, and nuclear. See above
 (4) MST4.C.C.PS4.1 Students observe and describe transmission of various forms of energy.
4.1b Chemical and physical changes can be exothermic or endothermic. Demonstration: Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions

Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions.doc
 (4) MST4.C.C.PS4.1 Students observe and describe transmission of various forms of energy.
4.1c Energy released or absorbed during a chemical reaction can be represented by a potential energy diagram. See above

Lauric Acid Lab.doc
 (4) MST4.C.C.PS4.1 Students observe and describe transmission of various forms of energy.
4.1d Energy released or absorbed during a chemical reaction (heat of reaction) is equal to the difference between the potential energy of the products and potential energy of the reactants. See above
 (2) MST4.C.C.PS4.2 Students explain heat in terms of kinetic molecular theory.
4.2a Heat is a transfer of energy (usually thermal energy) from a body of higher temperature to a body of lower temperature. Thermal energy is the energy associated with the random motion of atoms and molecules. See above
 (2) MST4.C.C.PS4.2 Students explain heat in terms of kinetic molecular theory.
4.2b Temperature is a measurement of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of material. Temperature is not a form of energy. See above
Unit II- Atomic Structure
 (23) MST4.C.C.PS3.1 Students explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.
3.1a The modern model of the atom has evolved over a long period of time through the work of many scientists. See above
 (23) MST4.C.C.PS3.1 Students explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.
3.1b Each atom has a nucleus, with an overall positive charge, surrounded by negatively charged electrons. Construct models of atoms
 (23) MST4.C.C.PS3.1 Students explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.
3.1c Subatomic particles contained in the nucleus include protons and neutrons. See above
 (23) MST4.C.C.PS3.1 Students explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.
3.1d The proton is positively charged, and the neutron has no charge. The electron is negatively charged. See above
 (23) MST4.C.C.PS3.1 Students explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.
3.1e Protons and electrons have equal but opposite charges. The number of protons equals the number of electrons in an atom. See above
 (23) MST4.C.C.PS3.1 Students explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.
3.1f The mass of each proton and each neutron is approximately equal to one atomic mass unit. An electron is much less massive than a proton or a neutron. See above
 (23) MST4.C.C.PS3.1 Students explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.
3.1g The number of protons in an atom (atomic number) identifies the element. The sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom (mass number) identifies an isotope. Common notations that represent isotopes include: 14C, 146C, carbon-14, C-14. See above
 (23) MST4.C.C.PS3.1 Students explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.
3.1h In the wave-mechanical model (electron cloud model) the electrons are in orbitals, which are defined as the regions of the most probable electron location (ground state). See above
 (23) MST4.C.C.PS3.1 Students explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.
3.1i Each electron in an atom has its own distinct amount of energy.

Lab: Spectroscope

Lab: Flame Test

Flame Test Lab.doc
 (23) MST4.C.C.PS3.1 Students explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.
3.1j When an electron in an atom gains a specific amount of energy, the electron is at a higher energy state (excited state). See above
 (23) MST4.C.C.PS3.1 Students explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.
3.1k When an electron returns from a higher energy state to a lower energy state, a specific amount of energy is emitted. This emitted energy can be used to identify an element. See above
 (23) MST4.C.C.PS3.1 Students explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.
3.1l The outermost electrons in an atom are called the valence electrons. In general, the number of valence electrons affects the chemical properties of an element. See above
 (23) MST4.C.C.PS3.1 Students explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.
3.1m Atoms of an element that contain the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons are called isotopes of that element. See above
 (23) MST4.C.C.PS3.1 Students explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.
3.1n The average atomic mass of an element is the weighted average of the masses of its naturally occurring isotopes. See above
 (23) MST4.C.C.PS3.1 Students explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.
3.1o Stability of an isotope is based on the ratio of neutrons and protons in its nucleus. Although most nuclei are stable, some are unstable and spontaneously decay, emitting radiation. See above
Unit III- Nuclear Chemistry Pearson - Chemistry

Chapters 25
 (23) MST4.C.C.PS3.1 Students explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.
3.1o Stability of isotopes is based on the ratio of neutrons and protons in its nucleus. Although most nuclei are stable, some are unstable and spontaneously decay, emitting radiation. Lab: Modeling Radioactive Decay (Marshmallow)
 (6) MST4.C.C.PS4.4 Students explain the uses and hazards of radioactivity.
4.4a Each radioactive isotope has a specific mode and rate of decay (half-life). Calculate Half-life

Half Life Lab.doc
 (6) MST4.C.C.PS4.4 Students explain the uses and hazards of radioactivity.
4.4b Nuclear reactions include natural and artificial transmutation, fission, and fusion. Lab: Constructing a model of radioactive decay (Popcorn)
 (6) MST4.C.C.PS4.4 Students explain the uses and hazards of radioactivity.
4.4f There are benefits and risks associated with fission and fusion reactions. See above
 (6) MST4.C.C.PS4.4 Students explain the uses and hazards of radioactivity.
4.4c Nuclear reactions can be represented by equations that include symbols which represent atomic nuclei (with the mass number and atomic number), subatomic particles (with mass number and charge), and/or emissions such as gamma radiation. See above
 (6) MST4.C.C.PS4.4 Students explain the uses and hazards of radioactivity.
4.4e There are inherent risks associated with radioactivity and the use of radioactive isotopes. Risks can include biological exposure, long-term storage and disposal, and nuclear accidents. See above Global Studies – Chernobyl Accident
 (6) MST4.C.C.PS4.4 Students explain the uses and hazards of radioactivity.
4.4d Radioactive isotopes have many beneficial uses. Radioactive isotopes are used in medicine and industrial chemistry, e.g., radioactive dating, tracing chemical and biological processes, industrial measurement, nuclear power, and detection and treatment of disease. Project: Radiation in the Environment
 (3) MST4.C.C.PS5.3 Students can compare energy relationships within an atom’s nucleus to those outside the nucleus.
5.3a A change in the nucleus of an atom that converts it from one element to another is called transmutation. This can occur naturally or can be induced by the bombardment of the nucleus by high-energy particles. See above
 (3) MST4.C.C.PS5.3 Students can compare energy relationships within an atom’s nucleus to those outside the nucleus.
5.3b Energy released in a nuclear reaction (fission or fusion) comes from the fractional amount of mass converted into energy. Nuclear changes convert matter into energy. See above
 (3) MST4.C.C.PS5.3 Students can compare energy relationships within an atom’s nucleus to those outside the nucleus.
5.3c Energy released during nuclear reactions is much greater than the energy released during chemical reactions. See above

Chemistry Item Analysis _2010_.pdf

Sample Literacy Strategy for Scientific Reading Pa